There are 14 fish species found in the Upper Snake region that do not occur elsewhere in the Columbia's watershed, but which do occur in Bonneville freshwater ecoregion of western Utah, part of the Great Basin and related to the prehistoric Lake Bonneville. The debate over removing the four dams on the lower Snake River has simmered for decades.. Riparian zones, wetlands and marshes once occurred along the length of the Snake River and its tributaries. However, precipitation in the Snake River watershed varies widely. The Snake River watershed includes parts of Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, and many other national and state parks. “There’s so much built-in mania about how wonderful infrastructure is in general, especially dams, and especially in the West,” says Waddell, who is a staunch advocate for the ­removal of four hydroelectric and navigation dams on the Lower Snake River in Washington State. It is one of the tributaries of the Mississippi River which is popular for being the river’s largest tributary by volume. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. [7] The lowest recorded daily mean flow was 2,700 cu ft/s (76 m3/s) on February 4, 1979. [12] Pronghorn and bighorn sheep are common in the area drained by the "lost streams of Idaho", several rivers and large creeks that flow south from the Rocky Mountains and disappear into the Snake River Aquifer. Another conservation effort that has helped the salmon recover, is the destruction of old, outdated dams, such as the Lewiston Dam on the Clearwater River, a tributary of the Snake. I think there’s substitutions for salmon. The removal of several dams on the lower Snake River has been proposed, in order to restore some of the river's once-tremendous salmon runs. The debate over whether to remove the four federal dams on the lower Snake River, for the benefit of salmon and steelhead migration and spawning, took on a new contentiousness as public concern increased over the fate of an endangered pod of killer whales — orca — that migrate between Puget Sound and the ocean off the Northwest coast. In order to raise awareness about this threatened ecosystem, several Wyoming conservation groups have banded together to organize a trail race that brings runners, local stakeholders, and concerned citizens together to experience this place and see exactly what is at stake. The Hells Canyon Project was built and maintained by Idaho Power Company starting in the 1940s, and was the second of the three major water projects on the river. Above Lower Granite Dam, the river channel from Lewiston to Johnson Bar, just below Hells Canyon, is also maintained for jet-boats as this section is too rugged for ships.[91]. In 1810, Andrew Henry, along with a party of fur trappers, discovered the Henrys Fork of the Snake River, which is now named after him. The Grand Coulee Dam also blocks spawning grounds to the famous "June Hogs" (legendary Chinook salmon that weighed over 100 pounds [45 kg]). Then, with the construction of Grand Coulee, the salmon disappeared. In higher elevations, conifer forests, of which ponderosa pine is most common, dominate the landscape. An even larger peak discharge, estimated at 409,000 cu ft/s (11,600 m3/s), occurred during the flood of June 1894. [11][16] A short distance downstream it passes under the Perrine Bridge. [83] However, there were more resources along the Snake River than wheat and grain. A total of fifteen dams have been constructed along the Snake River for a multitude of different purposes, from its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains to its mouth on Lake Wallula, the reservoir formed behind McNary Dam on the Columbia River. 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